Providing water vapour and temperature profiles
The Infrared Sounder (IRS) on MTG-S will be able to provide information on horizontally, vertically, and temporally (4-dimensional) resolved water vapour and temperature structures of the atmosphere.
18 June 2021
21 May 2020
The IRS acquires a number of spectral soundings simultaneously over a dwell using a two dimensional detector array. It uses a ‘step-and-stare’ mechanism to probe the Earth´s atmosphere.
The dwell coverage is stepped in an east/west direction to form a line of dwell spectral soundings, before moving northward to form the next line, covering the local area coverage (LAC) within the repeat cycle duration (‘step-and-stare’ principle of probing the atmosphere).
Four separate LAC zones are defined and scanned sequentially (Figure 2). One LAC is acquired within 15 minutes, consisting of overlapping dwells following a step and stare scan pattern. Each dwell consists of 160x160 pixels (spectral soundings), with 4 km spatial sampling distance at nadir. Europe (LAC4) is observed every 30 minutes.
The spectral soundings are transmitted to the ground as interferograms and transformed to spectral channels as part of the ground processing, before dissemination to the end users as Level 1 datasets.
The IRS is based on an imaging Fourier-interferometer with a hyperspectral resolution of 0.625 cm-1 wave-number, taking measurements in two bands, the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) and the Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR).
Summary of technical specifications
- Two Spectral bands: MWIR: 1600 to 2250 cm-1 (4.44–6.25 µm) and LWIR: 680 to 1210 cm-1 (8.26–14.70 µm).
- Full disc coverage in 60 min, Europe region (Local Area Coverage) 30 min.
- Spatial resolution of 4 km x 4 km at nadir.
- Radiometric measurement ranges between 180 K and 313 K (equivalent black-body temperature.)
- Spectral radiometric noise (excluding spectral calibration) at 280 K black body: between 170 and 900 mK depending on the considered wave-number inside the band of interest.
The IRS includes the ozone band within LWIR and the carbon monoxide band within MWIR. This will allow measurement within the free troposphere, leading to information on enhanced levels of pollution in the boundary layer below.