Volcanic eruption with plume. Credit: Ammit

Volcanic eruptions in Pacific Ocean region

14 August 2008-7 December 2022

Volcanic eruption with plume. Credit: Ammit
Volcanic eruption with plume. Credit: Ammit

A collection of cases looking at eruptions from volcanoes in Asia and the Pacific Ocean regions, from 2008-2022.

Last Updated

21 March 2023

Published on

10 February 2023

By Federico Fierli, Sancha Lancaster, HansPeter Roesli, Anu-Maija Sundström, Sabrina Szeto, Julia Wagemann

Table of contents

Mauna Loa Raikoke Aoba 2018 Mount Mayon Aoba 2017 Mount Ontake Kasatochi


Mauna Loa

28 Nov-1 Dec, Hawaii
By Federico Fierli, Anu-Maija Sundström, Sabrina Szeto, and Julia Wagemann

Mauna Loa is the world’s largest active volcano, and it is located on the south-central part of Hawaii’s Big Island. On 27 November, the volcano began erupting for the first time since 1984.

In volcanic eruptions, large amounts of gases, ash, and other aerosol particles are emitted in the atmosphere. One of the major emitted species is sulfur dioxide (SO2), which is a reactive gas and an important indicator of volcanic activity.

SO2 emissions from volcanic eruptions are clearly visible from satellite observations. One of the first satellite observations of the Mauna Loa SO2 plume was captured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 instrument (GOME-2) onboard the Metop-B and Metop-C satellites on 28 November (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Merged GOME-2 observations from Metop-B & C show an extensive SO2 plume from the volcanic eruption at Mauna Loa on 27 November 2022. The plume transport is animated for the period 28 November to 1 December. GOME-2 SO2 observations provided by AC SAF

The plume of SO2 with more than 10DU was emitted to the troposphere with an estimated plume height of about 6km in the immediate vicinity of the volcano (Figure 2).

IASI plume height
Figure 2: The Metop-C IASI image on 28 November 2022 shows the height of the SO2 plume at about 6km in the immediate vicinity of the volcano (left). On 1 December, over the USA, the plume height was estimated to be at about 8-15km (right). The IASI SO2 plume height data is provided by ULB/ LATMOS

The SO2 plume was transported eastwards over the United States, then the Atlantic, up to the west coast of Africa, reaching plume heights of about 8-15km. Overall, SO2 emissions were being transported more than 12,000km from their origin.

At the time of observation ash was still flowing out of the volcano forming a meandering plume. SO2 emission appears to have stopped earlier on and its cloud has drifted east-southeastward. Comparing the distribution of the two species, SO2 was mixed with ash, but not the other way round.

Figure 3: On 3 December 2022 the SO2 plume from the Mauna Loa eruption was transported over the USA, the Atlantic up to the African west coast. The figure represents merged GOME-2 total

Figure 3 shows GOME-2 observations on 3 December, when elevated SO2 concentrations from Mauna Loa, were visible being transported to the west coast of Africa.

On 7 December the volcanic SO2 plume was visible in merged GOME-2 observations from Metop-B and Metop-C
Figure 4: On 7 December 2022 the volcanic SO2 plume was visible in merged GOME-2 observations from Metop-B & C. More recently the plume has been transported more towards the north

Figure 4 shows emissions on 7 December, when the direction of the transport changed more towards the north. The plume remained visible in satellite observations until 12 December.

Additional content

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory updates



21 June-5 July, Kuril Islands
By Sancha Lancaster, Hans-Peter Roesli, and Anu-Maija Sundström (FMI/AC SAF)

A powerful, rare eruption from Raikoke volcano in the Kuril Islands on 21 June 2019, could be clearly seen on satellite imagery.

On 21 June, just before 18:00 UTC, volcano Raikoke in the Kuril Islands, started a sequence of spectacular eruptions. It is reported that the last big eruptions dated from 1924.

Himawari-8 detected the first signs at local daybreak, between 17:50 UTC and 18:00 UTC. Both, the Himawari-8 visible band VIS0.64 and the Volcanic Ash RGB captured the first emerging plume of SO2 and ash from the eruption (Figure 5).

 Himawari-8 visible band VIS0.64 (top panels) and the Volcanic Ash RGB (bottom panels), 21 June 17:50 UTC and 18:00 UTC
Figure 5: Himawari-8 visible band VIS0.64 (top panels) and the Volcanic Ash RGB (bottom panels), 21 June 2019 17:50 UTC and 18:00 UTC

The red arrows on the top left panel (VIS0.64 at 17:50 UTC, 500m spatial resolution at subsatellite point (SSP), enhanced) point to the very feeble shadow of the emerging plume. Ten minutes later shadow and plume were evident (top right panel).

On the Volcanic Ash RGB (lower left panel, four times lower spatial resolution than the VIS0.64) a red arrow points to a dark spot, which turns into a rising plume of SO2 (green pixel) and ash (brown pixels) ten minutes later.

All four panels are in native projection in order to get a 3D-impression. Checking band IR3.9 for a hot spot (not shown) did not reveal any sign either before or after the first eruption, probably due to an inadequate spatial resolution or the oblique view not reaching the hot lava sources.

Also in native projection the animation of the same image couple (Figure 6) documents the evolution of the eruptions during the local daytime of 21 June (21 June 18:00 UTC to 22 June 09:00 UTC).

Figure 6: Himawari-8 Visible and Volcanic Ash RGB, 21 June 2019 18:00 UTC–22 June 09:00 UTC
 GFS analyses of the wind and relative humidity cross section from the position of Raikoke eastwards, on 21 June 18:00 UTC
Figure 7: GFS analyses of the wind and relative humidity cross section from the position of Raikoke eastwards, on 21 June 2019 18:00 UTC

During this initial phase of the volcanic activity a sequence of large eruptions spewed considerable amounts of ash and SO2 into the atmosphere, that spread, at low level westward, then, after reaching 5km height, eastward, accompanied by some overshooting tops consisting of ash (red tints) and sometimes mixed with SO2 (yellow).

At the same time, although at a slower pace, ash moved in the opposite direction. This outflow appears to be confined to lower levels, as confirmed by the GFS analysis of the wind cross section from Raikoke on 21 June 18:00 UTC, see red barbs in wind cross section on Figure 7. Close to Raikoke the winds in the maritime boundary layer, ie up to some 2–3km, were rather weak and from the east, whereas from 3km to 16km stronger westerlies were blowing from Raikoke, beyond a distance of 800km.

The animation in polar-stereographic projection of Volcanic Ash and Airmass RGBs, from the start of the eruption to its end at about 16:00 UTC on 23 June (Figure 8), not only shows the very clear ash and SO2 signals in the Volcanic Ash RGBs (red, yellow and green) on the left panel, but also an extraordinary SO2 signal in the Airmass RGB (red) in the right panel.

Figure 8: Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash (left) and Airmass (right) RGBs, 21 June 2019 18:00 UTC–23 June 16:00 UTC
 Skew-T profile extracted from the GFS analysis at 18:00 UTC on 21 June
Figure 9: Skew-T profile extracted from the GFS analysis at 18:00 UTC on 21 June 2019

The deep red colour suggests that the standard temperature range of the WV6.2–WV7.3 difference, which colours the red beam, was saturated due to a large amount of SO2 under a slant viewing angle, reducing brightness temperature at 7.3µm through an intense absorption line.

The position of the tropopause and lower stratosphere can be gathered around 150hPa from the skew-T profile extracted from the GFS analysis at 18:00 UTC on 21 June (Figure 9).

Therefore, it is assumed that most of the long-distance SO2 transport happened in the westerly winds in the drier higher troposphere and lower stratosphere up to around 16km high.

After having travelled eastward for a few hours and shedding most of the ash, the high-level SO2 swath was taken up by a big deep cyclonic whirl over the Aleutian.

 Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash and Airmass RGBs, 23 June 09:00 UTC
Figure 10: Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash and Airmass RGBs, 23 June 09:00 UTC

Figure 10 shows the situation at 09:00 UTC on 23 June, again in the Volcanic Ash and Airmass RGBs, when the cyclonic path had already made much progress. At the same time, a first break-up of the streamer, due to a deformation zone, had set in (white arrows). Subsequently, above Siberia, the SO2 streamers broke down into ever smaller whirls and streaks. The SO2 distribution became quite chaotic, it even flowed back over the Kuril Islands.

The GOME-2 instruments on Metop-A and B also detected the large sulphur dioxide plume. The AC SAF SO2 products (Figure 11 and 12) show the very small expulsion of SO2 on 21 June and the swirling mass of SO2 by 27 June.

 Met-A/B GOME-2 SO2, 21 June
Figure 11: Meteosat-A/B GOME-2 SO2, 21 June 2019. Credit: AC SAF
 Met-A/B GOME-2 SO2, 27 June
Figure 12: Meteosat-A/B GOME-2 SO2, 27 June 2019. Credit: AC SAF

The combined view from Himawari-8 and GOES-E (GOES-17) gives an idea of the situation on 28 June at 00:00 UTC (Figure 13).

 Himawari-8 and GOES-17 Volcanic Ash and Airmass RGBs, 28 June 00:00 UTC
Figure 13: Himawari-8 and GOES-17 Volcanic Ash and Airmass RGB, 28 June 2019 00:00 UTC

The SO2 was still detectable on the Himawari-8 RGBs for a few days beyond that date. The animation in native projections of hourly Volcanic Ash and Airmass RGBs gives an overview from the start of the eruption on 21 June to 5 July (Figure 14).

Figure 14: Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash (top) and Airmass (bottom) RGB, 21 June 2019 18:00 UTC–05 July 23:00 UTC

Note: In other volcanic eruptions that were documented with Airmass RGBs, this RGB never showed such a strong (deep red) SO2 signal. Compared to this event, these cases (see Previous Case Studies below) were observed at smaller viewing angles and in a very dry upper troposphere. In this case of Raikoke the airmass was variably humid through almost the whole troposphere, as shown by the blue to green colouring in Figure 3 and only really dry (yellow) only from close to the top of the troposphere upward.

Additional content

Eruption of the Raikoke volcano in the Kuril Islands (CIMSS Blog)
Raikoke Volcano's Eruption Seen from Space (Photos) (Space.com)
Raikoke Erupts (NASA Earth Observatory)
Volcano Raikoke spits ash over Bering Sea (Phys Org)
Raikoke volcano news & activity updates (Volcano Discovery)



5-14 April, Vanuatu
By HansPeter Roesli

The activity between 5 and 14 April can be seen in the Himawari-8 animation using Volcanic Ash RGBs from AHI at 10-minute intervals (Figure 15). The animation shows two major eruptions with a pause (shown in fast-forward) between 6 April 06:00 UTC and 9 April 16:20 UTC. Coincidentally, during the lull the area was frequently shrouded in convective cloud.

Figure 15: Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash RGB, 6 April 2018 06:00 UTC-9 April 16:20 UTC.

On 15 April the Wellington VAAC office reported that the eruption had ceased. The different phases of the eruptions are commented on in more detail below.

SO2 plume travelling to the Coral Sea

 Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash and SO2, 5 April 16:00 UTC
Figure 16: Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash and SO2, 5 April 2018 16:00 UTC

A map of SO2 concentration extracted from IASI on Metop, tweeted by Simon Proud (@simon_sat), showed a patch of high values east of Australia. The map was from 10 April and the tweet hinted that the SO2 was being ejected from the volcano Aoba.

In fact, the first part of the animation in Figure 17 shows an eruption on 5 April after 13:50 UTC, with an SO2 plume (green colour) that morphed into a ring while travelling west (see Figure 16).

According to the Ash and SO2 RGB sequence (Figure 18) the SO2 passed north of New Caledonia and arrived over the Coral Sea 24 hours later, very close to where IASI detected the large SO2 patch.

Figure 17: Himawari-8 Ash and SO2 RGB, 5 April 2018 13:30 UTC-6 April 14:00 UTC

The peculiar ring-shape of the SO2 plume may be explained by the closest radio-soundings at Nouméa in New Caledonia (540km south-west of Aoba) on 5 April 12:00 UTC and 6 April 00:00 UTC. They show a temperature inversion at/above 700hPa and moderate easterly winds below.

Most probably, the plume has evolved under this temperature inversion in a rather laminar flow that favoured its regular horizontal expansion.

SO2 and ash going east

After the lull, from 9 to 14 April, the skies cleared up somewhat and the renewed eruptions reached greater heights than before, most of them ending up in the westerly regime above the boundary layer.

 Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash RGB, left image 10 April 19:20 UTC, right image 11 April 14:00 UTC
Figure 18: Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash RGB, left image 10 April 2018 19:20 UTC, right image 11 April 14:00 UTC

The left-hand panel of Figure 18 shows a plume where the ejection of mainly ash (pink to grey colour) alternated with one of mainly SO2 (green colour). In contrast, one day later (right-hand panel) an almost pure SO2 plume encountered a turbulent regime and meandered considerably.

Going west again

After 11 April the eruptions weakened and the effluents were again driven westwards by the winds in the boundary layer. Sentinel-3A’s OLCI instrument scanned the area in daylight on 12 April.

 Left image Sentinel-3 OLCI True Colour RGB, 12 April 22:20 UTC, right image Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash RGB 12 April 22:20 UTC
Figure 19: Left image Sentinel-3 OLCI True Colour RGB, 12 April 2018 22:20 UTC, right image Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash RGB 12 April 22:20 UTC

The True Colour RGB from 12 April 22:20 UTC (Figure 19, left panel) shows a northwest pointing plume. Strangely enough, on the Himawari-8 Volcanic Ash RGB from the same time (Figure 19, right panel) the streak is hardly recognisable — very weak SO2 colouring but no ash colours.

Mount Mayon

14-24 Jan, Philippines
By HansPeter Roesli

On 14 January Mount Mayon, the Philippines' most active volcano, started to erupt. This continued for at least two weeks and could be seen on both Himawari-8 and Suomi-NPP imagery between 22 and 24 January.

 Suomi-NPP Natural Colour RGB, 22 January 05:20 UTC
Figure 20: Suomi-NPP Natural Colour RGB, 22 January 2018 05:20 UTC

Figure 21 shows an animation of the Ash RGB from Himawari-8's AHI instrument, from 22 January 00:00 UTC to 24 January 06:00 UTC, the location of the volcano is indicated by a red dot.

The sequence shows a series of short eruptions seemingly consisting almost exclusively of ash (dirty red to dark violet) — no sulfur dioxide (SO2) (light green) appears to be present. It ends at 06:00 UTC on 24 January, after a couple of hours without discernible activity on the images, as Mount Mayon ends up under cloud cover.

Figure 21: Himawari-8 Ash RGB, 22 January 2018 00:00 UTC–24 January 06:00 UTC
 Suomi-NPP Natural Color RGB at 375m spatial resolution, from 05:20 UTC on 22 January.
Figure 22: Suomi-NPP Natural Color RGB at 375m spatial resolution, from 05:20 UTC on 22 January 2018. View Natural Color RGB on Google Earth

The Suomi-NPP Natural Colour RGB at 375m spatial resolution, from 05:20 UTC on 22 January (Figures 20 & 22), shows a meandering ash plume (brown arrows pointing to middle-grey plume) moving towards the north west, and varying between weaker to denser ash streaks.

There are another two dark patches near the volcano that do not stem from ash. On Figure 22 (the annotated version of the same image) the patch indicated by a blue arrow is a lake. The other, shown by the magenta-coloured arrow, is the shadow cast by the cyan-coloured ice cloud that fans out from the volcano, which signals a new, relatively strong eruption, that can be followed in the Himawari animation.

Additional content

Philippines volcano: lava erupts from Mount Mayon as ash covers towns (The Guardian)
The Philippines' most active volcano Mount Mayon erupts (BBC News)



22 Sep-1 Oct, Vanuatu
By HansPeter Roesli

Volcano Aoba, or Ambae, in the South Pacific nation of Vanuatu, had intermittent eruptions in September and October 2017.

The imaging radiometer AHI on Himawari-8 covered this period with imagery in 16 radiometric bands at 10-minute intervals.

The eruptive plumes did not reach great heights, so passing cloud decks hid or mixed with the volcanic effluents. Nevertheless, the Volcanic Ash & SO2 RGB identified a couple of cyan-coloured SO2 swaths between 22 and 23 September, as shown in the image sequence from 22 September 17:00 UTC to 23 September 23:00 UTC.

However, the ash signal did not show up very clearly in these RGBs. While the display of various shades from a dirty red to dark blue (instead of the typical pink) hinted at the presence of ash or other effluents, it manifested rather by its dynamical behaviour, ie by plumes originating from the crater area.

The single frames in Figure 23, 23 September 00:50 UTC (left slider) and 23 September 04:30 UTC (right slider) show examples, where the latter frame also offers a glimpse of the hot spot.

Image comparison

23 Sept 04:30 UTC compare1

Figure 23: Comparison of Himawari-8 images showing the volcanic plume.

Reflected sunlight in the high resolution band VIS0.64 (spatial resolution of 0.5km v 2km in the infrared bands used to construct the Ash & SO2 RGB) gave some more details of the various plumes and streamers. The image sequence from 22 September 19:00 UTC–25 September 06:30 UTC is three consecutive days The sequence shows many differently shaped outbursts during the daylight hours.

A couple of individual frames and their Ash & SO2 RGB counterparts may help to identify some of those in the animation.

Figure 24 is the visible imagery showing a short initial outburst early on 22 September (locally the 23 September), that in the Ash & SO2 RGB appeared as a faint SO2 colour.

 Himawari-8 Visible 0.64, 22 Sept 21:30 UTC
Figure 24: Himawari-8 Visible 0.64, 22 September 2017 21:30 UTC

A little over six hours later Figure 25 shows a much stronger outburst. The VIS0.64 indicates a pulsating plume that originated from a tiny dark-grey spot, the active crater of Aoba. Due to the reduced resolution, the Ash & SO2 RGB did not show the knotty pattern, but illustrated the crater as a hot spot in dark blue.

 Himawari-8 Visible 0.64, 23 Sept 04:40 UTC
Figure 25: Himawari-8 Visible 0.64, 23 September 2017 04:40 UTC

On 23 September at 21:30 UTC (24 September locally) (Figure 26) the visible imagery showed a southward-pointing plume that mixed with the cloud deck moving through the scene. In the Ash & SO2 RGB that plume was hardly visible.

 Himawari-8 Visible 0.64, 23 Sept 21:30 UTC
Figure 26: Himawari-8 Visible 0.64, 23 September 2017 21:30 UTC

One hour later, the plume was still there, and the True Colour RGB from Sentinel-3’s OLCI imaging radiometer showed the situation in more detail.

 Sentinel-3, 23 Sept, 22:34 UTC
Figure 27: Sentinel-3 OLCI True Colour, 23 September 2017 22:34 UTC
 Suomi-NPP & Himawari-8, 24 Sept, 02:30 UTC
Figure 28: Suomi-NPP VIIRS Natural Color RGB and Volcanic Ash & Himawari-8 AHI Visible 0.64 and Volcanic Ash, 24 September 2017 02:30 UTC

Three hours later the scene took on a more chaotic look. On Figure 28, an image couple from Himawari-8 is compared to a Natural Color RGB and an Ash & SO2 RGB from the VIIRS imager on Suomi NPP at 375m and 750m spatial resolution, respectively. Note the active crater on the VIIRS images (upper row), a tiny red spot in the Natural Colour RGB and a blue blotch on the Ash & SO2 RGB. On the Natural Colour RGB the crater was surrounded by dark colours, hinting at deposited ash.

 Himawari-8 Visible animated gif, 1 Oct, 19:00–21:00 UTC
Figure 29: Himawari-8 Visible animated gif, 1 October 2017 19:00–21:00 UTC

Aoba maintained some activity after 26 September — the animated visible imagery from 1 October, 19:00–21:00 UTC (Figure 29) showed a weak plume moving westward in the two hours after sunrise.


Mount Ontake

27 Sep, Japan
By HansPeter Roesli

Mount Ontake, Japan's second highest volcano, erupted shortly before noon on 27 September, sending thick plumes of ash and rocks into the air.

Ash up to 20 inches deep covered large swathes of the mountain after the volcano erupted. A major rescue effort took place to bring down hikers who had been climbing the mountain. More than 30 people were believed to have died.

Full Resolution Suomi-NPP Volcanic Ash and SO2 RGB

Metop-A, 27 September 2014, 11:25 UTC
Figure 30: Metop-A Infrared, split-window difference IR10.8-IR12.0, 27 September 2014 11:25 UTC
Metop-A, 27 September 2014, 12:17 UTC
Figure 31: Metop-A Infrared, split-window difference IR10.8-IR12.0, 27 September 2014 12:17 UTC

The zoomed split-window differences images above, taken a few hours after the eruption and almost 50 minutes apart, show a considerable weakening of the ash output — yellow pixels indicating negative differences of IR10.8-IR12.0 the ash signal.

However, this observation is only possible with hindsight after looking at Suomi-NPP VIIRS images. On the image comparison below the Natural Colour RGB image shows a small grey plume pointing eastward. The Volcanic Ash and SO2 RGB is much clearer, with pink areas indicating ash and light-green areas indicating SO2 (clouds appear as orange).

Image comparison

Volcanic Ash and SO2 RGB compare1

Figure 32: Comparison of Suomi-NPP images showing the eruption

Additional content

Five more bodies found on Japan's Mount Ontake after eruption (CNN)
Ash cloud captured by the Modis Satellite (Robert Speta/Twitter)
Volcanic Cloud Monitoring (NOAA/CIMSS)



7-31 Aug, Aleutian Islands
By HansPeter Roesli

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) plumes from the Kasatochi eruption circled the whole northern hemisphere over more than 20 days

Kasatochi is a small island volcano located in the Aleutian Island chain just east of 180° longitude (see map ). According to the Alaska Volcano Observatory of the USGS, on 7 August 2008: "Satellite data show an ash plume to an altitude of at least 35,000 feet in the vicinity of Kasatochi Volcano 22:30 UTC (14:30 ADT). The plume is drifting to the south-southwest."

Courtesy of the same website an animated sequence of GOES-12 images (Credit: David Schneider) depicts the expanding ash cloud resulting from the eruption. More information on the Kasatochi volcano may be found at the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program.

The SO2 plumes trajectories have also been observed in the so-called Ash RGB composites of Meteosat-9, and with the GOME-2 and IASI instruments on Metop-A.

Both the amount of backscattered UV radiation from the Sun (GOME-2) and the emitted IR radiation (SEVIRI, IASI) are sensitive to the presence of SO2. The hemispheric SO2 circulation is well depicted by an animated sequence of the GOME-2 SO2 product (daily composites, Credit: Univ. of Bremen). Limited to Meteosat-9's field-of-view, the Meteosat-9 Ash RGB sequence offers a smoother view of the trajectories of some of the light-green coloured SO2 streaks.

Arrows on four RGB frames (16 August, 17 August, 20 August, 21 August ) allow better tracking of the SO2 in the image loop.

The situation on 21 August offers a good opportunity to compare the RGB with the SO2 product from GOME-2 and a simple SO2 scheme from IASI. A narrow SO2 streak over the eastern Atlantic moves slowly south-southeastwards crossing the British Isles and the Gulf of Biscay (see hourly Meteosat-9 Ash RGB sequence). A shorter RGB sequence (21 August, 08:00–14:00 UTC) overlaid with the GOME-2 product of the morning orbit matches reasonably well when taking into account the different observation techniques used and the considerable mismatch in spatial resolution.

IASI data are only available for the evening orbit. A simple qualitative scheme, namely the temperature difference on/off an SO2 absorption line (1284cm-1 minus 1344cm-1) and free of other trace gas absorption, is used to show the presence of SO2. There is an excellent match of the signals (left frame) between the light-green RGB streak (middle frame) and the dark IASI streak (right frame).

Compared to the Chaitén eruption in May 2008, where the volcanic SO2 clouds followed the flow of smooth planetary waves around the southern hemisphere, Kasatochi's SO2 streaks trace a more wave-like upper tropospheric flow over the northern hemisphere — as one would expect.

SO2 plumes from the Kasatochi eruption
Figure 33: Metop-A GOME-2 SO2 Vertical Column Density (daily composite), 12 August 2008. Full Area

Animated sequence (10–20 August 2008)
(Credit: DLR, Applied Remote Sensing Cluster)
Animated sequence (01–31 August 2008, animated )
(Credit: A. Richter & colleagues, Univ. of Bremen)

SO2 plumes from the Kasatochi eruption
Figure 34: Met-9 Ash RGB, 14 August 2008, 12:00 UTC. Full Area Comparison to GOME-2 SO2 product

Additional content

Met-8 24-h Cloud Microphysics RGB animation (5-minute scan interval) (21 Aug 12:00 UTC–22 Aug 06 UTC)