In addition to key partners, EUMETSAT has formal cooperation agreements with national organisations and agencies
EUMETSAT has formal cooperation agreements with the following organisations: China National Space Administration (CNSA), China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Chinese State Oceanic Administration (SOA), Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (ROSHYDROMET).
In addition, interaction with these partners takes place within the framework of various coordination groups such as the CGMS, CEOS and GEO, as well as the WMO Space Programme.
China National Space Administration (CNSA)
EUMETSAT and the CNSA formalised their cooperation through the signature of a framework agreement on 15 March 2017. The agreement provides a policy framework and a long-term perspective for the further development of already existing cooperation with the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the Chinese State Oceanic Administration’s (SOA) National Ocean Satellite Application Centre (NSOAS).
China Meteorological Administration (CMA)
EUMETSAT and the CMA have had a mutually beneficial cooperation since 1998 which initially focussed on operational scientific and training activities and has been strengthened over the years to include satellite data and product exchange, calibration and validation, and scientific activities. In 2014, EUMETSAT hosted the first two long-term CMA visiting scientists/technical experts and such interaction is expected to become a standing feature of the cooperation.
The operational data exchange enables the redistribution of EUMETSAT data and products to all countries in the Asia-Pacific area and Chinese data in Europe. The data dissemination systems EUMETCast and CMACast both contribute to the global satellite dissemination system GEONETCast in support of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).
Following the de-orbiting of Meteosat-7 from over the Indian Ocean in 2017, EUMETSAT, the CMA, ISRO, and Roshydromet jointly support the data coverage over the Indian Ocean.
The cooperation with the CMA supports EUMETSAT in its role as a major data provider, including to a number of Copernicus services, such as oceanography, atmosphere monitoring and climate change.
The CMA is the largest meteorological service in the world, and its National Satellite Meteorology Centre, located in Beijing, operates China’s Fengyun (FY) meteorological polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite programmes.
China has been actively involved in space since the 1960s, performing many successful satellite launches since 1970, and is a major contributor to the WMO Global Observing System. Users globally benefit from its activities.
STATE OCEANIC Administration (SOA)
A cooperation agreement on the exchange of oceanographic satellite data between China’s National Satellite Ocean Application Service (NSOAS), a division of the Chinese State Oceanic Administration (SOA), and EUMETSAT was signed in August 2012 by EUMETSAT Director-General Alain Ratier, and the Director of the NSOAS, Jiang Xingwei.
The agreement further increases cooperation with China and creates new opportunities for the oceanography user community. Under the agreement, EUMETSAT provides data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) instruments flying on the Metop satellites as well as from the ocean topography missions.
In return, the NSOAS/SOA provides data from the HY-2 satellites, adding Chinese altimeter, radiometer, and scatterometer data to EUMETSAT’s portfolio of third-party data. The cooperation consolidates EUMETSAT’s position as a key data provider to the oceanography user community. The agreement also covers cooperation on data processing, scientific, and calibration and validation activities.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC)
The formal cooperation with Environment and Climate Change Canada (Environment Canada at the time) started in 2008 with early involvement in the EUMETSAT regional retransmission service network (called ATOVS at the time, now replaced with EARS).
The cooperation covers data and product access and exchange, as well as the possibility of participating in EUMETSAT’s Satellite Application Facility (SAF) network, in particular, scientific and technical developments in the framework of the Ocean Sea Ice, Hydrology and GRAS SAFs. It also covers support to operational meteorology and climate monitoring through improved high-latitude observations, sharing experience on satellite meteorology training, possibilities for contribution to follow-on satellite programmes and missions (particularly in the definition stages) and potential cooperation in the context of GEO as well as for developing countries.
Should high latitude missions materialise on either the Canadian or European side, it would likely result in an enhanced collaboration.
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
The cooperation between EUMETSAT and ISRO was established in 2000 and has grown stronger over the years. Today, the cooperation focuses on satellite data and product exchange of the parties’ respective Earth observation satellites in support of weather analysis, forecasting, and oceanography. The cooperation also includes calibration/validation activities, scientific exchange and training.
Similar to EUMETSAT and its Member States, ISRO coordinates data utilisation with the India Meteorological Department (IMD).
Since early 1980, ISRO has operated dedicated meteorological missions including INSAT and Oceansat satellite series. Following the de-orbiting of Meteosat-7 over the Indian Ocean in 2017, EUMETSAT, ISRO, the CMA and Roshydromet jointly support the data coverage over the Indian Ocean. Other joint collaboration supporting oceanography includes ISRO-CNES’s SARAL and Megha-Tropiques missions, and the US-Europe Jason mission.
JAPAN SPACE EXPLORATION AGENCY (JAXA)
EUMETSAT’s collaboration with the Japan Space Exploration Agency (JAXA) dates back to the early 2000s within the frameworks of international groups and committees. Since 2013, EUMETSAT has held a special user account with JAXA for the redistribution of GCOM-W1 data to EUMETSAT’s Member States and, in return, EUMETSAT’s users provide feedback on the use of the data.
GCOM-W1 data from the AMSR-2 instrument have been included in the operational models of the Met Office UK and the ECMWF for numerical weather prediction purposes. The Met Office also uses it for ocean and precipitation forecasting purposes.
JAXA is active in monitoring greenhouse gas observations through its GOSAT mission.
It is expected that the collaboration with JAXA will increase in the medium to long term in view of EUMETSAT’s future generation satellites.
EUMETSAT also collaborates with JAXA (and NASA) on the multi-partner Global Precipitation Monitoring (GPM) mission.
EUMETSAT contributes to the GPM mission with the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on Metop-A, whose data are included in the near-real-time tropical rainfall measuring mission multi-satellite precipitation analysis.
Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
The cooperation between EUMETSAT and the JMA, established in 2007, enables a long-term framework to address information sharing on ongoing and future satellite programmes, coordinating the implementation of relevant WMO and CGMS recommendations, and exchanging data and products from the respective meteorological satellites. The cooperation covers a scheme for visiting scientists and satellite calibration/validation activities and foresees interactions related to weather analysis and forecasting, as well as climate research activities.
Further cooperation efforts envisage the possibility of infrastructure optimisation for a regional exchange of satellite data, the exchange of archived and other Earth observation satellite data, the development of satellite data extraction methods, as well as the exchange of satellite instruments and expert exchanges.
Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA)
EUMETSAT and the KMA share a long-standing cooperation, which was strengthened in 2006 with the signature of a cooperation agreement permitting periodical consultations and a focus on satellite data applications development and data processing methodology, training, and scientific research. After the launch of the South Korean Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) in 2010, the cooperation with the KMA was extended in 2011 to include satellite data and product exchange. With COMS, the KMA contributes to the WMO Global Observing System for geostationary satellites, in line with the strategy adopted by the CGMS.
Benefits of this cooperation have been achieved in the fields of numerical weather prediction, nowcasting and climate monitoring, as well as calibration and validation activities.
U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Over the past 30 years, EUMETSAT has established strong cooperation with the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), particularly with its National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS). This cooperation was recognised with the signature of a long-term cooperation agreement in August 2013 which encompasses all types of cooperation.
In 1998, NOAA and EUMETSAT signed the Initial Joint Polar System Agreement (IJPS). The IJPS comprises two polar-orbiting satellite systems and their respective ground segments and will provide and improve operational meteorological and environmental forecasting and global climate monitoring services worldwide. The IJPS will continue to provide long-term environmental observations from polar orbit.
The IJPS programme will contribute to and support the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Observing System, the Global Climate Observing System, the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and other related programmes.
In addition to their cooperation with regard to polar-orbiting satellites, NOAA and EUMETSAT have also signed backup and data exchange agreements for their geostationary satellites.
For the medium to long-term future, and as a continuation of the IJPS cooperation, NOAA and EUMETSAT signed the Joint Polar System (JPS) Agreement in December 2015. The JPS will mainly consist of the following major elements:
- the NOAA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) covering the afternoon orbit;
- the EUMETSAT Polar System – Second Generation (EPS-SG) Metop satellite series covering the mid-morning orbit;
- data access to other relevant third-party missions.
EUMETSAT and NOAA are also key partners of the Jason programme. Jason-2 reliably delivers detailed oceanographic data vital to understanding weather forecasting and climate change monitoring. Launched in January 2016, Jason-3 ensures continuity in the measurement of rising sea levels carried out by Jason-2, Jason-1 and TOPEX/Poseidon over the past 18 years. CNES and NASA are also supporting the programme, with EUMETSAT maintaining the operational role already established for the Jason-2 programme.
This cooperation will continue with the Copernicus Jason-CS / Sentinel-6 missions.
A study detailing the EUMETSAT-NOAA Collaboration in Meteorology from Space was published in 2013.
EUMETSAT and ROSHYDROMET started their formal relationship in 1997. The current cooperation framework covers satellite data and product exchange from the respective geostationary and low Earth orbit satellites, satellite validation and calibration, scientific activities and training.
In early 2010, a Roshydromet HRPT receiving station in Moscow was included in the EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS) network, focusing on regional near-real-time data reception. This has resulted in an increase in data covering the northern hemisphere.
Following the de-orbiting of Meteosat-7 from over the Indian Ocean in 2017, EUMETSAT, with Roshydromet, ISRO, and the CMA, jointly support the data coverage over the Indian Ocean.
Within the Russian Federation, ROSHYDROMET is the institution in charge of operating satellites with meteorological, ocean and climate-related missions. Like EUMETSAT, ROSHYDROMET has established a long-term satellite programme which includes geostationary (Electro), low Earth orbit (Meteor) and highly elliptical (Arctica) orbiting satellites.
US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
In addition to the well-established cooperation with NASA in support of oceanography through the Jason satellite programme and Rapidscat that flew on the ISS, EUMETSAT collaborates with NASA (and JAXA) on the multi-partner Global Precipitation Monitoring (GPM) mission, formalised through an agreement on 26 July 2013.
EUMETSAT contributes to the GPM mission with the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on Metop-A, whose data is included in the near-real-time Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite precipitation analysis.