In mid-October Ophelia transitioned from a hurricane to a mid-latitude low, bringing strong winds and heavy rains to parts of Ireland and the UK.
By HansPeter Roseli (Switzerland), Jose Prieto (EUMETSAT), Ivan Smiljanic (SCISYS), Sancha Lancaster (Pactum) and Jörg Asmus (DWD)
Ophelia formed as a tropical depression on 9 October, out of a decaying cold front that had stalled over the North Atlantic.
Due to favourable conditions — still reasonably warm sea surface temperatures, below-average temperatures aloft and low wind shear — the storm became a hurricane on 11 October.
After becoming a Category 2 hurricane on 12 October and fluctuating in intensity for a day, Ophelia unexpectedly rapidly intensified and was declared by the National Hurricane Center to be a Category 3 hurricane on 14 October, while south of the Azores.
Figure 2 is the GOES-16 Natural Color RGB from 13 October at 08:30 UTC, showing Ophelia as it was still intensifying into a major hurricane.
Shortly after achieving peak intensity, Ophelia began to quickly weaken as it accelerated towards Britain and Ireland, becoming extratropical early on 16 October.
The Meteosat-10 Airmass RGB animation, from 15 October 06:00 UTC to 16 October 09:00 UTC (MP4, 16 MB), shows the transition of Ophelia from a hurricane to a mid-latitude low.
It is interesting to see how the remnants of the hurricane clouds moved up to the Outer Hebrides by the end of the animation.
On the animated gif of the Meteosat-10 Airmass RGB (Figure 3), compromising of four frames at 18:00 UTC on 15 October and 00:00, 06:00 and 09:00 UTC on 16 October, the red arrows indicate the cloud clusters of ex-hurricane Ophelia, as it travelled over the UK and Ireland.
Figure 4 depicts, at three hourly intervals, Ophelia's progress across the Atlantic towards northern latitudes, when it accelerated its pace to dissolve close to Ireland.
This is seen by the minimum values of brightness temperature in the images in the period from 13 October at 12:00 UTC until 16 October 09:00 UTC.
Ophelia brought strong winds, with gusts of 176 km/h (109 mph) recorded at Fastnet Rock. Large waves were seen on the coasts of Ireland and the UK.
At least three people were reported to have died when the storm hit Ireland and more than 380,000 properties were left without power in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and Wales.
The Meteosat-9 Natural Colour RGB Rapid Scan animation (MP4, 74 MB), created by meteorologists at DWD, shows Ophelia's journey over six days, from 11 October to 16 October.
Note: NOAA's GOES-16 satellite has not been declared operational and its data are preliminary and undergoing testing.
Ex-hurricane Ophelia over Ireland and the United Kingdom (CIMSS Blog)
Ex-Hurricane OPHELIA's landfall in Ireland (Michael Sachweh/YouTube)
OPHELIA - Ein Stormchase der besonderen Art (Wetterzentrale Forum, in German)
Ex-hurricane Ophelia passes after 90mph winds (Met Office)
Hurricane Ophelia: Schools closed and thousands without power (BBC News)
Three die as Storm Ophelia batters Ireland and Britain (The Guardian)