The Italian volcano Stromboli erupted with a series of small explosions on 3 July 2019.
By Ivan Smiljanic (SCISYS) and HansPeter Roesli (Switzerland)
Mount Stromboli, on a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, has been in almost continuous eruption for the past 2,000 years. Its activity is almost exclusively explosive, but lava flows do occur at times, most recently in 2014.
Initially both ash and SO2 were detected (Figure 1, top right, click to expand). After few hours most of the volcanic ash settled down and only the SO2 plume continued to spread into the following day.
Figure 2: Meteosat-11 Volcanic Ash animation, 3 July 14:00–23:45 UTC
Looking at the animated SEVIRI Ash RGB product, 3 July, 14:00–23:45 UTC, (Figure 2), it is clear that the main eruption occurred some time between 14:30 and 14:45 UTC. There was one stronger episode of ash and SO2 ejection in the atmosphere, sensed by SEVIRI infrared channels, where the content spread in arch-like pattern that expanded and spread mainly in a south-easterly direction.
Some more details may be detected in animation in Figure 3, that compares the HRV band with the Volcanic Ash RGB from the rapid-scanning Meteosat-9. The first signs of an eruption plume appeared at 14:45 UTC in both panels, i.e. the eruption must have started between 14:40 UTC and 14:45 UTC. As clearly shown by the HRV images, the plume expanded in two opposite directions from the start. A bright plume expanding west and a darker plume going east. The west plume was loaded with SO2 (green-tinted pixels in the Volcanic Ash RGB). The east plume was more of an ash cloud with some SO2 included (brown-red-yellow tints).
Figure 3: Meteosat-9 High Resolution Visible (left) and Volcanic Ash RGB (right) animation, 3 July 14:30–18:30 UTC
Previous Case Study
Eruption of the volcano Stromboli (28 Feb 2007)