Monitoring trace gas concentrations from a polar orbit
Copernicus Sentinel-5 will provide operational monitoring of trace gas concentrations for atmospheric chemistry and climate applications.
16 February 2023
19 May 2020
The objectives of the Sentinel-5 polar-orbiting atmospheric monitoring missions are:
- Measurements of ozone profile and total column
- Measurement of columns of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapour, methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO)
- Measurement of bromine monoxide (BrO),formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (OCHCHO)
- Measurement of volcanic plumes
Carried on the polar-orbiting Metop-SG-A satellite, the Sentinel-5 mission comprises an Ultraviolet Visible Near-infrared Shortwave (UVNS) spectrometer and data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI-NG), the Visible Infrared Imager (METImage) and the Multi-viewing Multi-channel Multi-polarisation Imager (3MI).
Compared to GOME-2, the major breakthrough of Sentinel-5 will be a drastically increased spatial sampling at a sampling distance of 7km, and the extension of measurements into the near and short-wave infrared, providing information about aerosols, as well as methane and carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.
Hyper-spectral soundings with a spectral resolution from 0.065–1nm in the wavelength range from 0.27–2.4385µm, at a spatial sampling of 7km for channels above 0.3µm.
|Band ID||Spectral Range (nanometres)||Spectral resolution Δλ (nanometres)||Spectral oversampling factor||SNR(1, 2)
|UV-1||270-300||1.0||3||100 @ 270nm|
|UV-2||300-370||0.5||3||T: 1000 @ 320nm
O: 1000 @ 310nm
|VIS||370–500||0.5||3||1500(3) @ 420nm, for λ < 430nm
1800 (T) / 2500 (O) @ 460nm for 430nm < λ < 460nm(4)
1500 @ 460nm for λ > 460nm
|500 @ 710nm
500 @ 750nm
|SWIR-1||1590-1675||0.25||3||250(5) @ λmax-SWIR1|
|SWIR-3||2305-2385||0.25||3||T: 120(5) @ λmax-SWIR3
O: 100(5,6) @ λmax-SWIR3
T — Threshold requirement, O — Objective requirement, λ — spectral channel centre of any spectral channel within the band, Lref — spectral radiance for estimating the signal-to-noise-ratio
The instrument is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer, directly imaging the entrance slit onto the Earth's surface.
Other EPS-SG instruments
Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer - New Generation (IASI-NG) is a passive infrared sounder.
The EPS-SG Multi-Viewing Multi-Channel Multi-Polarisation Imaging (3MI) instrument is a passive optical radiometer.
Ice Cloud Imager
The Ice Cloud Imager (ICI) instrument is a conically scanning millimetre/sub-millimetre wave radiometer.
The Scatterometer (SCA) is a real aperture, side-looking radar, emitting microwave radiation towards the Earth's surface.
Sentinel-5 science studies
CO2M level-2 NO₂ science support
Providing EUMETSAT with scientific support on NO₂ retrieval for the Copernicus CO2M mission.
CO2M level-2 GHG science support
Providing EUMETSAT with scientific support on GHG retrieval for the Copernicus CO2M mission.
Atmospheric composition podcasts
The impact of COVID-19 on air quality
Stijn Vermoote (ECMWF/CAMS) and EUMETSAT Trainer Federico Fierli discuss how satellite observations have shown that the impact of COVID-19 is visible from space, due to improved air quality.
Monitoring greenhouse gases from space
Greet Maenhout (European Commission) and Ruediger Lang (CO2 Project Scientist at EUMETSAT) discuss monitoring greenhouse gas measurements from space.